Doxycyline, common uses
Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. Doxycycline kills certain bacteria that cause infection, or stops their growth. Doxycycline treats many kinds of infections of the skin, bone, stomach, respiratory tract, sinuses, ear, and urinary tract. Doxycycline also treats Lyme disease and certain sexually transmitted diseases. For travellers to certain areas doxycycline can be given to surpress malaria.
Take doxycycline capsules by mouth. Swallow capsules whole with a full glass of water. It is best to take doxycycline without food, but if it upsets your stomach take it with food. Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take doxycycline more often than directed. Do not take doxycycline just before going to bed. Doxycycline may not dissolve properly when you are lying down and can cause ulceration of your food pipe.
The usual adult dose of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day for seven-14 days depending on the type of infection. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours.
In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.
If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses. There should be an interval of at least 6 to 8 hours between doses of doxycycline.
Before taking doxycycline, tell your doctor if you are allergic to doxycycline or any other drugs.
Tell your doctor what prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking.
Certain medicines may interact with doxycycline, they include; antacids, barbiturate medicines for inducing sleep or treating seizures, calcium salts, carbamazepine, cholestyramine, colestipol, digoxin, female hormones, including contraceptive or birth control pills, ferrous sulfate, magnesium salts, other antibiotics, phenytoin, sodium bicarbonate, warfarin.
The use of tetracyclines during tooth developement (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth.
Contact your pediatrician or health care professional regarding the use of doxycycline in children. Special care may be needed.
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
As with other antibiotic preparations, use of doxycycline may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the doxycycline should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Possible side effects
Side effects common to doxycycline include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and sensitivity to the sun. Other adverse side effects associated with doxycycline include black tongue or swollen tongue, or vaginal yeast infection. Serious side effects to the treatment of doxycyline could include an allergic reaction, severe headaches, changes in vision, confusion, liver damage, blood problems or genital sores or itching.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.
Keep doxycycline in a tightly closed container and out of reach of children. Store doxycycline at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).
Please note that no present-day antimalarial agent, including doxycycline, guarantees protection against malaria. Avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by using personal protective measures that help avoid contact with mosquitoes. Doxycycline prophylaxis should begin 1-2 days before travel to the malarious area and should be continued daily while in the malarious area. The treatment
should be continued for 4 further weeks to avoid development of malaria after returning from an endemic area but the treatment should not exceed 4 months.
Avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving doxycycline and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (e.g., skin eruption, etc.) occurs. Sunscreen or sunblock should be considered.
The above information is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of your physician, or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that use of doxycycline is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.
Consult your health care professional before you